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Airbags / Seat Belts / Friendly Interior Occupant Restraint Design & Analysis


The following crash tests are just a few examples of ongoing analyses by Expert David J. Biss to assess critical occupant packaging/protection parameters including calculating velocity-changes and injury risks for crashes in the field.


Ford Taurus Crash Test Analysis


David Biss and /asa/ extensively use and analyze laboratory crash tests as baseline data to support our analyses with generally accepted methods; and further, to gain comparative data to normalize against when assessing the injury severity risk of real-world crashes under investigation. This methodology is also the basis of the NHTSA-NASS methodologies to assess the probabilities of injuries and severities in various Delta-V crashes.



Dodge Caravan 30 mph Crash Test Analyzing  Air Bag Performance


Dodge Caravan 40 mph IIHS Off-Set Barrier Crash Test - Analyzing Airbag Performance (video)


Land Rover Discovery IIHS Crash Test


The Insurance Institute for Highway Safety [IIHS] has an extensive database of offset deformable frontal barrier, side and rear impact tests; as well as rollover assessments. Upon in-depth assessment the IIHS tests will, at times, closely match real-world crashes under investigation. The IIHS crash test presented here is an example which was used by /asa/ and was instrumental in being able to establish the survivability of a real-world crash.


David J. Biss – Engineering Test Consultant Dodge Intrepid – NCAP Test


David J. Biss was the Consulting Crash Test Engineer Overseeing and Monitoring this Joint NCAP/Center for Auto Safety/The Car Book sponsored Crash Test, applying his expertise as the Liaison between NHTSA, Calspan, Volvo and the Publishers of The Car Book.


David J. Biss was the NHTSA Engineering Test Director for the Joint NHTSA/Volkswagen crash test of a Production Chevrolet equipped with Advanced Air Bags at the ESV Conference in Wolfsburg, Germany. In that capacity he was the Technical Director for designing and building the test vehicle in the U.S., shipping it to Europe; and, was also the Engineering Liaison with the Volkswagen Engineers who performed the crash test while Mr. Biss presented the data results at the ESV.


Production Chevrolet as Base Car for Advanced Airbags



While at the NHTSA, David J. Biss, and the engineering team under his direction, were the first independent air bag experts to identify, then quantify, the critical need for adaptive airbag systems which utilized multi-stage airbags to inflate with multiple-levels of gas flow characteristics for preventing injuries to near-positioned occupants in all severities of crashes.



ESV Production Crash-Test Car

(click to enlarge)


Multi-Staged Air Bags in ESV Car

(click to enlarge)


David J. Biss was the Overall Engineering Project Manager for the NHTSA/Volvo Joint Project to Develop and Integrate Advanced Restraint Systems into Stock Volvo Sedans. Mr. Biss developed the comprehensive test matrix to Crash Test 36 vehicles [26 Volvo’s and 10 bullet vehicles] to demonstrate 50 mph BEV crash test performance in production Volvo Sedans. Volvo in the mid 1970's was the first moderately priced car company to incorporate a programmed force-deflection profile into their frontal crash pulse to obtain higher speed, non-injurious, occupant protection performance.



Volvo Sedans Equipped with Advanced Airbags in a 36 Vehicle Crash Test Matrix to ± 45 Degree Angles



Volvo Offset Crash Test - 90 mph closing

(click to enlarge PHOTO)

In addition, while at the NHTSA, Mr. David Biss technically supervised a team of air bag design engineers to upgrade Volvo cars equipped with Volvo production air bags to incorporate adaptive multi-level sensing and inflation scenarios in order to minimize injuries to near-positioned occupants, while maintaining 40 mph BEV protection.

David J. Biss was employed as an Automotive Safety Engineering Consultant for both Volvo Car Corporation of Sweden and Volvo of America, including working at the factory in Göteborg, Sweden. At Volvo-Sweden, Mr. Biss integrated Advanced Crash Victim Simulator Models with Volvo Design and Manufacturing Methods, all towards the design of combined airbag/seat belt systems for Volvo production automobiles. In the U.S., Mr. Biss consulted for Volvo as the Crash Test Verification Engineer for NCAP tests which also served as baseline tests for airbag integration into Volvo car platforms.




David J. Biss – Engineering Test Consultant Volvo Wagon NCAP Test No. 807



David J. Biss – Engineering Test Consultant Volvo Sedan NCAP Test No. 808



David J. Biss and his firm Automotive Safety Analysis Corporation Sponsored and Carried out Pioneering Research on the Effects of Three-Point Belt Pre-Tensioning Using the HYGE Crash Simulator Sled at the Transportation Research Center of Ohio.



David J. Biss /asa/ Sponsored HYGE Sled Tests

(slow-motion video)


David J. Biss – Sled Test Director Test Set-Up




Head Excursion Trajectories

for HYGE Sled Tests

(click to enlarge)